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Nature

Uvnitř i vně, author: PhDr. Jiří Bartoň
The natural setting of the Prague 11 Metropolitan District


The landscape relief and its composition

The initial shape of the Prague plateau is the Tertiary peneplane with rather small differences in elevations. Pre-Palaeozoic deposits are rare on the surface; the only place of occurrence in the region is the Háj Hill. During the Underground construction, evidence of rich sea life during the early Palaeozoic was found between the neighbouring Spořilov and Kačerov. There were fossils from Lower Ordovician period, mainly a tail shield of the largest Czech Trilobite.

The region surface is mainly sandy and clay deposits. Before the housing development construction of the Jižní Město started, those were covered by a layer of topsoil. Underneath the topsoil there is mostly clay. The rocky foundation is the top Proterozoic of the Štěchovice group. It is a dusty, sandy to siliceous slate with crumbs and shale.

The terrain slowly changes into a slow, low ridge, starting from the banks of the Botič Creek to the west to the Kunratice Wood where it is defined by the Kunratice Creek. The Háj Hill next to the Opatov Hotel is 317 metres high. The Vyšší Chodová Hill is 319 metres. It lies southwest of the D1 motorway in the area of Jižní Město II. However, today the eye is drawn rather to the artificial hill with a pavilion. Under the edge of the Milíčovský Wood there is also a large landfill of dugout material from the construction of the Underground line C. This is today called the Milíčovský Hill. It provides nice greenery with growing vegetation inviting to leisure, sports and walks.

Watercourses

The watercourses in the region are already bound by concrete and in many places are hidden underground: Chodovský Creek passing the Chodovská Fort on the east, and Hájský Creek starting in the north part of the original Háje area.

The backbone of the small waterways in the region is the Botič Creek, although it touches the area of Prague 11 only symbolically. It springs close to Křížkový Újezdec. It goes through the Průhonice Park from Kocanda and enters the Prague area in Újezd, flowing through Křeslice, Petrovice, Hostivař, and other metropolitan districts. It ends under the Vyšehrad Castle where it enters Vltava River. The length of the Botič Creek is 33.5 km and it creates seven ponds on its way. The catchment area covers 134.8 square kilometres and the average flow rate at the issue is 0.44 cubic metres. A total of 21 kilometres of the length lie in the area of Prague municipality.

The appearance of Botič close to Jižní Město was dramatically changed by the Hostivař dam in the neighbouring cadastral area. The basis of the Hostivař dam built in the valley in 1959-1963 is an embankment dam 16 metres high and 110 metres long in the crown. The lake, which was filled in 1964, covers 53 ha. The maximum depth of the lake is 12 metres, the length of Botič’s backwater is 2.6 km. The permanent volume of retained water is 1.34 million cubic metres; maximum retention is over 2 million cubic metres of water.

Just below the southern border of Jižní Město is the small Milíčovský Creek. Next to Milíčovský Dvůr, in the Újezd cadastral area, there is a small system of ponds. From west to east there are ponds called Nový or Milíčovský, Kančík, Homolka, and Vrah. The largest one is the Milíčovský pond (3.24 ha) with the cleanest water and nicest banks used for leisure activities. To the east of the pond with a very unpoetic name Vrah (Murderer) there is a recent sedimentation tank catching dirt from rainwater drains which flows into the Milíčovský Creek. It was named Šátek or Šáteček (Scarf) by local patriots.

As the area surface rises above 250 metres above sea level, the inhabitants of Prague 11 can mostly live out of reach of inversions, which are common in the lower areas of the Prague agglomeration. Thanks to the prevailing west winds with an average speed of 3.3 m/s, the area is well ventilated. Ground inversions which occur under unfavourable weather conditions up to 25 metres above the terrain are very rare, mostly at night and early mornings. With its temperate warm climate this region is suitable for habitation.

Flora

From Modřany to Kunratice to Jižní Město there is a border between two areas of geographic spread of Czech Republic’s vegetation. To the north there is the area of xerothermic vegetation and flora; to the south there is the area of deciduous trees of the temperate zone and vegetation requiring medium humidity of soil and air in the altitude of 300-350 metres.

To the north the country is mostly forest-free and intensely cultivated. There are remains of steppes with many plants of continental and Mediterranean origin. Small woods consist mainly of oak. In the area of Prague 11 the vegetation typical for this area fades. On the slate slopes of the Kunratický Wood and the neighbouring Michelský Wood which create a green area of 300 ha there is stunted oak wood with xerothemric plants such as cornel, dittany, medick and sealwort.

Permanent deforestation of the south area occurred in the Middle Ages. There are typical hornbeam and linden woods partially preserved in the Kunratický and Milíčovský Woods, pine and fir woods, and beech woods in higher altitudes. There are typical pond societies and different types of meadows. Hornbeam and linden woods are rich in variety and include many xerothermic plants. In the Kunratický and Milíčovský Woods there are also some cryophilic plants. There are spruce monocultures, pines and to smaller extent firs and some broadleaved trees. In Milíčovský Wood with area of 76 ha there are alders with sedge around the springs. The pond societies and wet meadows are found in the cadastral areas of Újezd, Hrnčíře and Šeberov.

However, most of the area of Prague 11 has been deprived of its original vegetation in the past centuries due to intensive agricultural cultivation. Today, we can find only secondary spruce, larch, pine and acacia, and rarely ash and oaks around creeks and in areas that are underdeveloped and unused.

In the areas between the buildings of the housing development of Jižní Město there is larger percentage of artificially planted greenery from previous years and the present. To the northeast from Háje in the direction of the Hostivař Dam a nice recreational wood has been growing in 1963.

Fauna

Despite the urban character of the region we cannot miss the fauna in the surrounding area. There is interesting wildlife in the pond system around Kunratice, Šeberov, Hrnčíře and Milíčov. The generic composition of fish is almost completely artificial but the variety of birds and mammals around the ponds is more or less natural. Of waterfowl, there are wild ducks and also coots, tufted duck, common moorhen and also stork and migrating swans. In some places muskrats live in the dams. There are amphibians, many types of frog including tree frog and orange speckled toad, slowworm and ring snake. There is rich and interesting invertebrate fauna, especially in insects. In the woods there are common vertebrate game such as roe deer, hare, pheasant and partridge, and also badger and fox. Moufflon has been introduced to the area. There are birds of prey such as buzzard, kestrel, some types of owls, for example tawny owl and little owl. There is black woodpecker, spotted woodpecker and green woodpecker. The broadleaved woods are also suitable for many interesting insects.

Natural reserves

In the neighbourhood of Prague 11 and surrounding districts

Hrnčířsko – šeberovské ponds and meadows (cadastral area of Hrnčíře and Šeberov), area of c/a 15 ha.

A system of three ponds with riparian societies, wet meadows, habitats of miry plants, waterfowl roost place.

Milíčovské ponds and wood (cadastral area of Újezd), area of c/a 80 ha.

The geological foundation of the proterozoic slate is covered by Quaternary sediments; the natural woods include lindens, hornbeam, alders; a system of ponds with riparian reed growths and wet meadows. The whole region of Jižní Město is dewatered by Vltava. Due to impervious subsoil, the region which slopes one way to the north and the other to the south has always had the groundwater level rather close to the surface. A similar situation occurs in the neighbouring cadastral areas of Šeberov and Újezd. Although replenishment of groundwater depends solely on precipitation, the area became the source and infiltration area of several small river sources. However, the groundwater level in Jižní Město was affected by the urban development. The area of Prague 11 is part of the Prague plateau. To the southwest, quite close to the region – next to Hořovická Groove at the confluence of the Vltava and Berounka rivers – are the beginnings of the Brdy Uplands. To the southeast the Prague plateau changes after 10 kilometres into the Central Bohemia Uplands and then to the Benešov Uplands.

Compiled from literature by Jiří Bartoň

Symbióza

Symbióza

 
Chráněné stromy

Chráněné stromy

 
Chráněné stromy

Chráněné stromy

 
Milíčovská alej

Milíčovská alej

 
Půvab a síla stromů

Půvab a síla stromů

 
Centrální park v říjnu

Centrální park v říjnu

 
Centrální park

Centrální park

 
Centrální park

Centrální park

 
Centrální park

Centrální park

 
Vskutku park

Vskutku park

 
Zelená vede

Zelená vede

 
Z procházky

Z procházky

 
Pohled zblízka

Pohled zblízka

 
Parčík u ul. V Jezírkách

Parčík u ul. V Jezírkách

 
Ranní slunce

Ranní slunce

 
Kvetoucí ulice

Kvetoucí ulice

 
Výhled

Výhled

 
Z ulic

Z ulic

 
Stín stromů

Stín stromů

 
Zeleň kolem Modré školy

Zeleň kolem Modré školy

 
Zeleň mezi domy

Zeleň mezi domy

 
Jižní Město II

Jižní Město II

 
Labutí rodinka

Labutí rodinka

 
Labutě na rybníku

Labutě na rybníku

 
Labutě na Homolce

Labutě na Homolce

 
Opuštěná jabloň

Opuštěná jabloň

 
Poklid na rybníku

Poklid na rybníku

 
Kačeny na rybníku Homolce

Kačeny na rybníku Homolce

 
Divoká, ale na vodítku

Divoká, ale na vodítku

 
Zajíc

Zajíc

 
Straka

Straka

 
Startující straka

Startující straka

 
Kosí jarní zpěv

Kosí jarní zpěv

 
Král mezi ploty

Král mezi ploty

 
Ekostádo

Ekostádo

 
Zvědavost

Zvědavost

 
Hodný

Hodný

 
Kůň z Újezda

Kůň z Újezda

 
Kačeny na vodní nádrži na vodoteči pod Chodovcem

Kačeny na vodní nádrži na vodoteči pod Chodovcem

 
Motýl

Motýl

 
Botič u Křeslic

Botič u Křeslic

 
Starý strom v údolí Botiče

Starý strom v údolí Botiče

 
Nový rybník v Milíčovském lese

Nový rybník v Milíčovském lese

 
Duby u Homolky

Duby u Homolky

 
Živá voda

Živá voda

 
Kateřinský smrk

Kateřinský smrk

 
Milíčovský potok

Milíčovský potok

 
Milíčovský vrch

Milíčovský vrch

 
Milíčovský les mezi rybníky Vrahem a Homolkou

Milíčovský les mezi rybníky Vrahem a Homolkou

 
Košíkovský potok na katastru Chodova

Košíkovský potok na katastru Chodova

 
Košíkovský potok na katastru Chodova

Košíkovský potok na katastru Chodova

 
Botič od Křeslic k Petrovicím

Botič od Křeslic k Petrovicím

 
Potok Botič pod zaniklým mlýnským rybníkem u Křeslic

Potok Botič pod zaniklým mlýnským rybníkem u Křeslic

 
Romantika u Botiče

Romantika u Botiče

 
Michelský les, vycházková cesta

Michelský les, vycházková cesta

 
Nádrž na vodoteči pod ulicí Nad Úpadem v Hájích

Nádrž na vodoteči pod ulicí Nad Úpadem v Hájích

 
Náš díl Michelského lesa se smíšeným porostem

Náš díl Michelského lesa se smíšeným porostem

 
Náš díl Michelského lesa, úsek smrkového porostu

Náš díl Michelského lesa, úsek smrkového porostu

 
Král dubů u rybníka Homolky

Král dubů u rybníka Homolky

 
Jižní Město od Hrnčíř

Jižní Město od Hrnčíř

 
Vlčí máky

Vlčí máky

 
Divizna

Divizna

 
Kakost

Kakost

 
Čičorka

Čičorka

 
Jírovec z Chodova

Jírovec z Chodova

 
Javor u Opatovské ul.

Javor u Opatovské ul.

 
Vyhlídka

Vyhlídka

 
Mladá borovice Mil. vrch

Mladá borovice Mil. vrch

 
Sakura Milíč. vrch

Sakura Milíč. vrch

 
Šípková růže na Milíčovském vrchu

Šípková růže na Milíčovském vrchu

 
Uvnitř i vně, author: PhDr. Jiří Bartoň

Uvnitř i vně

 
 
25.9.2009 9:37:03 - updated 12.5.2012 15:04:19 | read 28578x | PhDr. Jiří Bartoň
 
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