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From the History of Prague 11

A brief overview of the history of the Prague 11 Metropolitan District

The territory of Prague 11 has been part of the capital of the Czech Republic since 1 January, 1968. It became an independent part in 1990 as Prague – Jižní Město (South City) and since November 1994 it has been identified as Prague 11. The Prague 11 Metropolitan District Administration provides for state administration in the specified areas as well as in three other metropolitan districts in Prague Šeberov, Prague Újezd and Prague Křeslice.

The current area of Chodov, as well as the surrounding region, witnessed human settlements in the New and Old Stone Age, or from the third millennium B.C. Over time, many groups of humans have been here, with different cultures. At the end of the period of the so called Migration of Nations the territory was vacant for some time. Somewhere in the 8th -9th centuries, at the end of the so called early hillfort age and during its middle period, the Slavic ancestors of the Czechs came here from the Prague valley and settlement of this area has never been interrupted since. The forests were crisscrossed by paths, while the original road from Benešov, according to H. Ječný, lead from Šeberov to Chodov and further north. According to this theory, an early origination of Chodov can be assumed. During the Middle Ages the network of main roads interconnected with the new crossroads by the wades across Vltava and in central areas of today's Prague. The territory of today's Prague 11 remained separated from the new centre by the large Nuselské valley and became part of the agricultural area of the capital.

The first written record is from 1185 and serves as a reminder of the local inhabitants, and free farmers – “kmets”. The archaeological findings so far document the oldest settlements since the 13th century. The foundation of Chodov was Chod’s or Hoda’s Manor. Another village, called Litochleby, grew nearby no later than in the 13th century.

The oldest history of Chodov and origination of the fort are unclear. According to all evidence, soon after 1185 Chodov belonged to an unidentified feudal dynasty (so far it has not been possible to proof whether it was the then significant Hrabišic magnate dynasty with the golden rake insignia); after that Chodov was held in 1188 – 1334 by the first recorded suzerain, the order of the Knights of the Cross with the Red Star, guardians of the Holy grave who were stationed at Zderaz (today by the Charles Square). That is why it cannot be decided whether the Chodov fort was established by the dynasty to care for the local territory or by the Knights of the Cross with the Red Star, also called the Knights of Jerusalem.

The first written record of Litochleby is from 1326 but the village soon belonged to the same owner as Chodov. Chodov maintained its priority position through the existence of the suzerain manor and fort. The one-story building with a round ground plan is one of the primary Chodov monuments. According to the archaeological research of V. Huml we can assume the fort was already there at the end of the 13th century. The territory of the younger village Háje belonged for a long time to Hostivař; Milíčov, originally in place of the today’s manor probably first belonged to Průhonice. Upper, as well as former Lower Roztyly connected to Záběhlice. The settlements were soon dominated by suzerain manors such as Chodovský, Milíčovský, Hájský, Roztylský, Šeberovský, Hrnčířský, Újezdský, Křeslický and Štít. Farming focused above all on cereals and livestock breeding. Growing beet was added in the modern times.

In the second decade of the 15th century the nearby Nový Hrad (New Castle) by Kunratice brought attention to itself. It was built by king Václav IV as his occasional but actually preferred residence. The king also died at the castle in 1419, making room for open Hussite storms. During the Hussite wars the citizens of Prague annexed Chodov as soon as in 1420. From 1433 until the fulfilment of a testament of 1526 the fort and the surrounding villages were in the hands of the Chodovský of Chrást dynasty that used a twice divided coat of arms. The heirs and relatives of the family sold the property in 1558 and after that it changed owners after each generation.

A report from 1471, according to which Magdalena Chodovská successfully defended her herd of cattle with a sword from Burgrave soldiers that were to chase the herd away as a punishment, is an indirect testimony about the existence of the manor. In 1526 the manor is first referred to by name.

During the thirty-year war Chodov was purchased by Jiří Vilém Michna of Vacínov who was ennobled and became a count. The fort and the manor were significantly damaged by the war but at that time actually became a noble manor stead. After several changes of ownership, Chodov was obtained by the Benedict cloister of St. Nicholas in the Prague Old Town in 1676. The Benedictines improved the operations of the manor that was rebuilt and they also rebuilt the damaged fort into a summerhouse. However, when the Benedictines later decided in favour of a large-scale reconstruction of their monastery, they sold Chodov and all related property to Jan Arnošt Václav, the free Lord of Golec, owner of Kunratice, in 1728. Chodov remained part of the Kunratice estate until 1848. In 1795 the Clam-Martinic dynasty became the owners of Chodov and in another six years it was purchased by Josef Antonín Korb of Weidenheim.

After the first half of the 18th century the Chodov – Litochleby settlement agglomeration consisted of the manor and 18 houses of different significance as well as three empty areas where manors used to be. Litochleby was gradually connected to Chodov. In 1844 the records on Litochleby show 29 houses with 173 inhabitants. However, starting with 1841 both of the villages were assigned a joined cadastre called Chodov. Litochleby became a settlement that later became surrounded by Chodov houses from three sides.

Since the end of the 18th century, Chodovec has been growing in the northern tip of the Chodov cadastre. Its origination was related to an attempt to mine for rock. Today, the northern part of Chodovec, around the Chodovec square, is surrounded by the Spořilov buildings. The southern part is being populated with areas of significance, including headquarters of scientific institutions and various service organizations.

After 1848, Chodov, Litochleby, Šeberov and Hrnčíře created one political municipality Chodov – Šeberov that had a total of 141 buildings and 1,201 inhabitants in 1890. Out of that, Chodov and Chodovec had 432 inhabitants and Litochleby 282 inhabitants. In 1908, Šeberov separated from Hrnčíře and was joined with Křeslice.

In 1886, a paved road was constructed along the path from Prague. After the creation of the Greater Prague in 1922, Chodov became an immediate neighbour of the capital which significantly influenced further construction growth of the municipality.

The area of the Chodov manor used to include, aside from buildings needed for agriculture and livestock breeding, orchards, garden and ponds, a brewery and later a distillery, and by the fort’s wall, a blacksmith’s shop. The manor, together with 294 hectares of fields, was sold to the Prague municipality in the 1920s, that would then rent it out. After 1948, the area became a farm of the Prague State Farm; in 1959 it became part of the Chodov Agricultural Co-operative. The manor disappeared in 1972 when it had to make way for a new, wide road, the Türkova Street. The fort underwent major reconstruction in 1984-1988 which turned the building with a historic aura into a cultural centre and a gallery.

, an image opens in a new windowThe oldest history of the Háje area is connected to the nearby village of Hostivař, today a part of Prague 15. It seems that there has been a manor since the 17th century. Maps from the 18th century show a village without a manor in the Háje area, called Maly Hostivarz. A rather small neighbourhood grew around a sloping square in the form of a wider road. After 1841, a chapel was built in the square. In 1898, Háje had 157 inhabitants, including the manor, the total number was 168 persons. The chapel, repaired several times, is the only reminder of the then square. The memento of the original village remains to be the then agricultural manor.

, an image opens in a new windowAnother manor, Milíčovský, might be a remainder of an old settlement from the 15th century. In the beginning of the 17th century there was a village that disappeared, the fields were attached to the manor, the local forest expanded and transformed into a warren for the nobility, and a deer-field. It also included a system of ponds. The Milíčovský manor is a direct part of Prague 11, the others are in the territory of Prague – Újezd.

, an image opens in a new windowAfter the origination of Czechoslovakia, Chodov, Háje, and other villages were attached to the political region of Říčany, established on 20 October, 1921. In 1942 they were assigned to the municipal office Prague – Countryside – South, and after the renewal of Czechoslovakia to the renewed Říčany region.

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The days of May, 1945, and the effort to support the fighting Prague lead to the Chodov uprising. During its course, especially on 7 May, the inhabitants of Chodov sacrificed many lives.

Since 1949, the Chodov and Háje villages became part of a newly established district Prague – East and since 1960 they have been assigned to the Prague – West district.

Since 1 January, 1968, both the villages were part of the Prague 4 district, while shortly before that Háje also approved its attachment to Chodov. Within the district Prague 4 a Chodov Municipal National Committee existed in the attached territory.

, an image opens in a new windowAfter 1970, Jižní Město began growing in the territory of Chodov and Háje. Starting in 1971, ground work commenced, followed by the construction of the individual buildings.

, an image opens in a new windowIn 1976, the first inhabitants moved in. The current form of administration was no longer sufficient. Consequently, the Municipal National Committee – Jižní Město with “experimental powers” existed since 1988.

Finally, the city part Prague – Jižní Město was established in 1990 and on 18. – 19. November of 1994 the resolution of the Municipal Corporation of the Capital Prague came into effect, giving the city part the title Prague 11, as mentioned above.

Š PhDr. J.Bartoň

, author: PhDr. Jiří Bartoň


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21.11.2005 18:56:03 - updated 14.8.2014 10:59:47 | read 29476x | PhDr. Jiří Bartoň


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